ULTRA Bibliography



For the reader wishing to learn more about cryptanalysis in World War II I would recommend the following books.

Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II by Stephen Budiansky is a well-researched, well-written and wide-ranging overview of the Polish, British and American codebreaking effort throughout the Second World War. It offers an excellent blend of historical and technical narrative and as such represents the best introduction for the general reader.

Information concerning the struggle to break the U-boat traffic can be found in David Kahn's excellent and well-researched book Seizing the Enigma. The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes 1939-1943. This book contains an account of Lieutenant Fasson and Able Seaman Grazier's retrieval of the Wetterkurzschlussel and Kurzsignalheft from U-559.

For detailed historical information concerning ULTRA the reader might like to consult the monumental British Intelligence in the Second World War by Professor Hinsley. There is also a single volume, abridged, edition of this work.

The Hut Six Story by Gordon Welchman and his article 'From Polish Bomba to British Bombe' first published in Intelligence and National Security are the most significant insider accounts on how Enigma was broken at Bletchley Park.

The Polish contribution is detailed in Wladyslaw Kozaczuk's book Enigma, edited and translated by Christopher Kasparek. This book is of very great value for its technical appendices written by Marian Rejewski, but the main body of the book is marred by the author's eagerness to supplant objectivity with patriotism.

The central figure at Bletchley Park, was, of course, Alan Turing. Turing's achievements in his tragically brief life were not confined to cryptanalysis. His solution of the Entscheidungsproblem with its conception of the Universal Turing Machine forms one of the foundation stones of computer science. Fortunately Turing's brilliance as a scientist has been reflected by Andrew Hodges' brilliance as a biographer in Alan Turing: The Enigma in this exceptionally fine scientific biography.

The following bibliography of the more important books, papers and articles concerning ULTRA was compiled in 1998 and has been augmented with a few of the more significant recent additions to the literature.

Atha, Robert I., Bombe! "I could hardly believe it!" Cryptologia, vol. IX, number 4, October 1985. 332-336.

Baldwin, Mark, Wartime Codebreakers, Book & Magazine Collector, July 1997.

Barnett, Correlli, Engage the Enemy More Closely, Hodder & Stoughton, London,1991.

Beesly, Patrick, Very Special Intelligence, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1977.

Beesly, Patrick, Who Was the Third Man at Pyry?, Cryptologia, vol. 11 number 2, 65-77.

Bennett, Ralph, Ultra in the West, Hutchinson, London, 1979.

Bennett, Ralph, Ultra and Mediterranean Strategy, William Morrow, New York, 1989.

Bennett, Ralph, Behind the Battle, Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994.

Bertrand, Gustave, Enigma, ou la Plus Grande Enigme de la Guerre 1939-45, Plon, Paris, 1973.

Bloch, Gilbert, and Erskine, Ralph, Enigma: The Dropping of the Double Encipherment, Cryptologia, July 1986, 97-118.

Bloch, Gilbert and Erskine, Ralph, Exploit the Double Encipherment Flaw in Enigma, Cryptologia, vol. 10, number 3, July 1986, 134.

Boyd, Carl, Hitler's Japanese Confidant, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 1993.

Brown, Anthony Cave, Bodyguard of Lies, W. H. Allen & Co., London, 1976.

Budiansky, Stephen, Battle of Wits, Viking, London, 2000.

Cairncross, John, The Enigma Spy, Century 1997.

Calvocoressi, Peter, Top Secret Ultra, Cassell, London, 1980.

Carter, Frank, Codebreaking with the Colossus Computer, Bletchley Park Trust, Bletchley, 1996.

Casey, William, The Secret War Against Hitler, Regnery Gateway, Washington, 1988.

Chandler, W. W., The Installation and Maintenance of Colossus. Annals of the History of Computing, 5 (1983), 260-262.

Clark, Ronald, The Man Who Broke Purple, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1977.

Coombs, A. W. M., The Making of Colossus, Annals of the History of Computing, 5 (1983), 253-59.

Costello, John, The Pacific War, Quill, New York, 1981.

Crawford, David J. and Fox, Philip E. (Editor), The Autoscritcher and the Superscritcher, Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 14, no. 3, 1992.

Davies, Donald W., The Bombe: A Remarkable Logic Machine, Cryptologia, vol. 23, no. 2, (1999), 108-138.

Deacon, Richard and West, Nigel, Spy! Six Stories of Modern Espionage, BBC Publications, London, 1980.

Deavours, Cipher A., Breakthrough '32: The Polish Solution of the ENIGMA, Aegean Park Press, California, 1988.

Deavours, Cipher A., Kahn, David, et. al., Cryptology Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Artech House, 1987.

Deavours, Cipher A., Kahn, David, et. al., Cryptology: Machines, History & Methods, Artech House, 1989.

Deavours, Cipher A., Kahn, David, et. al., La Methode des Batons, Cryptologia, vol. IV, number 4, 240-247.

Deavours, Cipher A. and Kruh, Louis, Machine Cryptography and Modern Analysis, Artech House, 1985.

Deavours, Cipher A. and Kruh, Louis, The Turing Bombe: Was it Enough? Cryptologia, vol. XIV, number 4, (1990), 331-349.

Deavours, Cipher A. and Reeds, J., The Enigma, Cryptologia, vol. I, number 4, Oct. 1977.

Deavours, Cipher A., The Autoscritcher, Cryptologia, vol. XIX, number 2, April 1995, 137-148.

Deavours, Cipher A., How the British Broke Enigma, Cryptologia, vol. IV, number 3, (July 1980) 129-132.

Deavours, Cipher A., Lobsters, Crabs, and the Abwehr Enigma, Cryptologia, vol. XXI, number 3, (July 1997) 193-199.

Denniston, A. G., The Government Code and Cypher School Between the Wars, Intelligence and National Security, vol. 1, number 1, January 1986.

Drea, Edward J., MacArthur's ULTRA, University Press of Kansas, Kansas, 1992.

Dull, Paul S., A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1978.

Enever, Ted, Britain's Best Kept Secret, Alan Sutton, Stroud, 1994.

Erskine, Ralph, Naval Enigma, The Breaking of Heimisch and Triton, Intelligence and National Security, vol. 3, number 1, January 1988.

Erskine, Ralph, Churchill and the Start of the Ultra-Magic Deals, Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. X, number 1, 1997, 57-74.

Erskine, Ralph and Weierud, Frode, Naval Enigma: M4 and Its Rotors, Cryptologia, vol. XI, number 4, 235-244.

Excell, R., Bletchley's Contribution to D-Day, Bletchley Park Trust, 1994.

Fitzgerald, Penelope, The Knox Brothers, Macmillan, London, 1977.

Flowers, Thomas H., The Design of Colossus. Annals of the History of Computing, 5 (1983), 239-52.

Gaj, Krzysztof, Szyfr Enigmy. Metody Zlamania, Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Lacznosci, Warszawa, 1989.

Garlinski, Jozef, Intercept (also published as The Enigma War), J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1979.

Gillogly, James J., Ciphertext-only Cryptanalysis of Enigma, Cryptologia, XIX number 4, 405-412.

Good, I. J., Early Work on Computers at Bletchley, National Physical Laboratory Report, London, 1976.

Gray, E., Operation Pacific, Leo Cooper, London, 1990.

Haldane, R. A., The Hidden War, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1978.

Hamer, David H., Enigma: Actions Involved in the 'Double Stepping' of the Middle Rotor, Cryptologia, vol. XXI, number 1, 47-50.

Hamer, David H., Sullivan, Geoff, & Weierud, Frode, Enigma Variations: An Extended Family of Machines, Cryptologia, vol. XXII, number 3, July 1998.

Harper, Stephen, Capturing Enigma: How HMS Petard Seized the German Naval Codes, Sutton, England, 2000.

Hayden, Edward L., The Greatest Convoy Battle of All Time, Sea Classics, June 1993, 22-31.

Hepp, Leo, Die Chiffriermaschine 'ENIGMA', F-Flagge, 1978.

Hinsley, F. H., and Stripp, Alan, (editors), Codebreakers. The Inside Story of Bletchley Park, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993.

Hinsley, F. H. et al, British Intelligence in the Second World War, (in 6 vols) H.M.S.O., London, 1984-1991.

Hinsley, F. H. et al, British Intelligence in the Second World War, (abridged) H.M.S.O., London, 1993.

Hodges, Andrew, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1983.

Hodges, Andrew, Turing, Phoenix, London, 1997.

Holmes, W. J., Double-Edged Secret, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1979.

Hughes, Terry, and Costello, John, The Battle of the Atlantic, Dial Press, New York, 1977.

Johnson, Brian, The Secret War, BBC Publications, London, 1978.

Johnson, Roy D., Cryptanalytic Report #2, Yellow Machine, NR 3175, Box 1009, Record Group 457, Historic Cryptographic Collection, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 1943.

Jones, R. V., Most Secret War, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1978.

Jones, R. V., Reflections on Intelligence, Heinemann, London, 1989.

Kahn, David, The Codebreakers, Macmillan, New York, 1967. Revised edition 1996.

Kahn, David, Seizing the Enigma, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1991.

Kahn, David, An Enigma Chronology, Cryptologia, vol. XVII, number 3, July 1993.

Körner, T. W., The Pleasures of Counting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1996.

Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw, W kregu Enigmy, Ksiazka i Wiedza, Warsaw, 1979.

Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw, Enigma, translated by Christopher Kasparek, University Publications of America, 1984.

Lewin, Ronald, Ultra Goes to War, Hutchinson, London, 1978.

Lewin, Ronald, The Other Ultra, Hutchinson, London, 1982.

Lisicki, Tadeusz, Enigma i Lacida, Przeglad lacznosci, London, 1974.

Lisicki, Tadeusz, Dzialania Enigmy, Orzet Biaty, London, 1975.

Lisicki, Tadeusz, Pogromcy Enigmy we Francji, Orzet Biaty, London, 1975.

Mayer, Stefan, The Breaking up of the German Ciphering Machine Enigma by the Cryptological Section in the 2nd Department of the Polish Armed Forces General Staff, Pilsudski Institute, New York, May 1974.

McKee, Alexander, El Alamein: Ultra and the Three Battles, Souvenir, London, 1991.

Morris, Christopher, Ultra's Poor Relations, Intelligence and National Security, vol. 1, number 1, January 1986.

Parrish, Thomas, The Ultra Americans, Stein & Day, New York, 1986.

Prados, John, Combined Fleet Decoded, Random House, New York, 1995.

Putney, Diane, Ultra and the American Air Forces in World War II, Office of the Air Force. Washington DC. 1987.

Rejewski, Marian, How Polish Mathematicians Deciphered the Enigma, Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 3, number 3, July 1981, 213-234.

Rejewski, Marian, Mathematical Solution of the Enigma Cipher, Cryptologia, vol. 6, number 1, January 1982, 1-37.

Renauld, P., La Machine à Chiffrer 'Enigma', Bulletin Trimestriel de l'Association des Amis de L'Ecole Superieure de Guerre, nombre 78, 1978.

Rohwer, Jurgen, and Hummelchen, G., Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1992 (2nd ed.)

Singh, Simon, The Code Book, Fourth Estate, London, 1999.

Skillen, Hugh, Spies of the Airwaves, Skillen, England, 1989.

Skillen, Hugh, The Y Compendium, Skillen, England, 1990.

Skillen, Hugh, Knowledge Strengthens the Arm, Skillen, England, 1991.

Skillen, Hugh, Enigma and its Achilles Heel, Skillen, England, 1992.

Skillen, Hugh, The Enigma Symposium 1992, Skillen, England, 1992.

Skillen, Hugh, The Enigma Symposium 1993, Skillen, England, 1993.

Skillen, Hugh, The Enigma Symposium 1994, Skillen, England, 1994.

Skillen, Hugh, The Enigma Symposium 1995, Skillen, England, 1995.

Smith, Bradley F., The Ultra-Magic Deals, Airlife, Shrewsbury, 1993.

Smith, Michael, The Emperor's Codes, Bantam, London, 2000.

Smith, Michael and Erskine, Ralph, (editors), Action this Day, Bantam, London, 2001.

Stevenson, William, A Man Called Intrepid, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1976.

Stripp, Alan, Codebreaker in the Far East, Frank Cass & Co., London, 1989.

Tuchman, Barbara W., The Zimmermann Telegram, Macmillan, New York, 1958.

Tucker, Dundas P., Rhapsody in Purple: A New History of Pearl Harbor, Cryptologia, VI, 3, July 1982, 193-228 (part I) and VI, 4, October, 1982 (part II).

Turing, Alan M., Treatise on the Enigma, (also known as Prof's Book), NR964, Box 201, Record Group 457, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 1940.

Turing, Sara, Alan M. Turing, Heffers, Cambridge, 1959.

Van Der Rhoer, Edward, Deadly Magic, Robert Hale, London, 1979.

Van Der Vat, Dan, The Pacific Campaign, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1991.

Welchman, Gordon, The Hut Six Story, McGraw Hill, New York, 1982.

Welchman, Gordon, From Polish Bomba to British Bombe: The Birth of Ultra. Intelligence and National Security, vol. 1, number 1, January 1986.

Welchman, Gordon, The Hut Six Story, M & M Baldwin, England, 1997. as McGraw Hill edition above, less part 4, but includes From Polish Bomba to British Bombe: from Intelligence and National Security.

Whitehead, David, COBRA, Enhanced reprint from newsletter of the Retired Staff Section of the British Telecom Research Labs Sports and Social Club, 1994.

Whitehead, David, COBRA and Other Bombes, Cryptologia, vol. XX, no. 4, (October 1996). 289-307.

Winterbotham, F. W., The Ultra Secret, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1974.

Winterbotham, F. W., The Ultra Spy, Macmillan, London, 1989.

Winton, John, Ultra at Sea, Leo Cooper, London, 1988.

Winton, John, Ultra in the Pacific, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1993.

Winton, John, Sink the Haguro, Leo Cooper, London, 1979.

Woytak, Richard A., On the Borders of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence 1937-1939 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret, East European Quarterly, Boulder, 1979.

Young, Irene, Enigma Variations, Mainstream, Edinburgh, 1990.


Films, Plays, Television Broadcasts and Videos

Sekret Enigmy. Directed by Roman Wionczek. Polish with English subtitles Zespoly Filmowe, Profil, 1979.

Still Secret. Volume 3 of The Secret War series. Written and produced by Brian Johnson. BBC Enterprises, 1988.

The Strange Life and Death of Dr Turing. Written and produced by Christopher Sykes for BBC TV and WGBH Boston. First broadcast by the BBC in 1992.

Breaking the Code. Written by Hugh Whitemore. Co-produced by The Drama House and WGBH Boston. First broadcast by the BBC in 1997.

Station X. A series of four one-hour documentaries about Bletchley Park. First broadcast by Channel 4 in 1998.



Copyright © Graham Ellsbury 1998, 2003

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